PAPUA CONFLICT

Records of Papua Conflict and which group (Government or OPM) is responsible for the event or casualties in the New Order 1965–1998 and Post-Suharto.

The Papua conflict is an ongoing conflict in Western New Guinea (Papua) between Indonesia and the Free Papua Movement (IndonesianOrganisasi Papua Merdeka – OPM). Subsequent to the withdrawal of the Dutch administration from the Netherlands New Guinea in 1962[10] and implementation of Indonesian administration in 1963,[11] the Free Papua Movement has conducted a low-intensity guerrilla war against Indonesia through the targeting of its military and police.[12]

New Order 1965–1998

  • July–August 1969: Act of Free Choice / PEPERA determines Western New Guinea as sovereign territory of Indonesia.
  • June 1971: Henk de Mari reported that 55 men from two villages in North Biak were forced to dig their own graves before being shot. Published in Dutch daily De Telegraaf Oct 1974.
  • Unknown: 500 Papuan corpses were found in jungle Lereh District, south west of Sentani Airport, Jayapura region.
  • 1974: In North Biak, 45 Papuans were killed.
  • 1975: In Biak, at least 41 people from Arwam and Rumbin villages were killed.
  • 1977: Aerial bombing of Akimuga (McMoRan Exploration Co. mine area).
  • 1977–78: Aerial bombing of Baliem Valley.
  • Apr 1978: Six unidentifiable bodies were discovered in the Dosai district of Jayapura.
  • May 1978: Five OPM leaders surrendered to save the village they were caught in. They were beaten to death with red hot[citation needed] iron bars and their bodies thrown into a pit latrine. The 125 villagers were then machine gunned as suspected OPM sympathisers.
  • June 1978: 14 corpses found shot, West of Sentani Airport, Jayapura region.
  • Unknown: North Biak, 12 people were shot after receiving permission to leave camp to collect sago for a village feast.
  • 1981: 10 Papuans were killed, and 58 disappeared without trace. Paniai Region.
  • Jun–Aug 1981: Operasi Sapu Bersih (Operation Clean Sweep); population of Ampas-Waris and Batte-Arso villages were bayoneted and left for dead.
  • Sep–Dec 1981: An estimated 13,000 Papuans were killed in the central highlands.
  • July 1984: Naval, air, and ground troop assault of Nagasawa/Ormo Kecil village; 200 were killed.
  • Unknown: Naval shelling of Taronta, Takar, and Masi-Masi coastal villages; the survivors fled towards Jayapura; under Dutch rule in 1950 each village had a population of 1500 to 2000.
  • 24 June 1985: 2,500 were killed in Paniai area of Wissel Lake district, including 115 from Iwandoga and Kugapa villages.
  • 1986–87: 34 were killed in Paniai/Wissel Lake District.
  • 8 January 1996: OPM militants led by Kelly Kwalik held 26 members of the Lorentz Expedition hostage in Mapenduma [id].[12] This triggered the Mapenduma hostage crisis (two hostages died) and the 1996 Timika shooting incident on 15 April (sixteen died).
  • 9 May 1996: Mapenduma hostage crisis ends with the raid on OPM base in Geselama, Mimika, by Kopassus.

Post-Suharto

1998–2010

  • 6 October 2000: As police raided a flag-raising ceremony in Wamena, two non-Papuans were killed in unclear circumstances. A riot began and moved to a neighbourhood of migrants from outside of Papua, burning and looting shops. Seven Papuans were shot and twenty-four non-Papuans killed.[55]
  • 11 November 2001: Two weeks after rejecting the autonomy law as soon as it had passed, the chairman of the Papua Presidium CouncilTheys Eluay, was found murdered in his car outside Jayapura after he had been kidnapped.[56]
  • 31 August 2002: Gunmen attacked a group of American school teachers and local employees on a sightseeing trip. Two Americans and one Indonesian were killed, and seven Americans and an Indonesian girl were wounded. Indonesian officials placed responsibility on the OPM; a spokesman for the group denied involvement.[57][58]
  • 1 December 2003: A group of 500 people hoisted the separatist flag, several other actions took place, 42 people were arrested.
  • 15 January 2004: Journalist Mark Worth found dead in hotel in Sentai two days after the ABC announced his documentary, Land of the Morning Star, would premier on Australian screens in February 2004[59]
  • 15 October 2004: Papuan rebels killed six civilians in an attack in Puncak Jaya.[60]
  • 16 March 2006: Three policemen and an airman were killed and 24 other people injured during a clash with Papuan students who had been demanding closure of Freeport’s Grasberg mine in Papua.[61]
  • 9 August 2008: In Wamena, one man, Opinus Tabuni (a distant relative of Buchtar Tabuni), was killed when Indonesian security forces opened fire in response to the raising of the banned Morning Star flag by activists at a large rally organised by DAP (Dewan Adat Papua – Papuan Customary Council) marking the UN-declared International Day of the World’s Indigenous People.[62]
  • 4 December 2008: Four Papuans were wounded by gunfire from the police at a demonstration for the independence of West Papua.[63]
  • 29 January 2009: At least five Papuans were wounded by shots fired by police during a demonstration.[63]
  • 14 March 2009: One Indonesian Army soldier was killed during an attack against a security post in Tingginambut. The OPM was blamed.[64]
  • 8 April 2009: Several bombs exploded against a bridge and a refinery on the island of Biak. One person was killed.[63]
  • 9 April 2009: A bomb attack in Jayapura killed five and severely injured several others.[65] Meanwhile, about 500 militants attacked a police post with bows and arrows and petrol bombs. One died after being shot by police.[66]
  • 11–12 April 2009: Fighting between the army and the Papuan resistance left eleven dead, including six members of the security forces. At the same time, a bomb was defused beside a police station in Biak.[63]
  • 15 April 2009: An attack against a convoy of police in Tingginambut killed one and wounded six. The OPM was blamed.[63]
  • 11 July 2009: An employee of Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc.’s Indonesian unit was shot dead in an attack outside the company’s mine in Papua.[67]
  • July 2009: OPM members hoisted the flag of West Papua in the village of Jugum. Afterwards more than thirty houses were burned by the Indonesian army.[68]
  • 12 August 2009: A convoy of sixteen buses for employees of Freeport-McMoRan Copper’s was ambushed. Two people were killed and five wounded.[69]
  • 16 December 2009: Free Papua Movement (OPM) leader Kelly Kwalik was shot by Indonesian police during a raid in Timika and died in Timika Hospital.[70]

2010–present

  • 24 January 2010: Rebels ambushed a convoy of mining company PT Freeport McMoRan employees. Nine people were injured; OPM denied responsibility.[71]
  • 1 March 2010: The Australian West Papua Association in Sydney said that the situation in West Papua was deteriorating. Since the previous July there had been fourteen incidents of shootings around the Grasberg mineFreeport‘s copper and gold mine. The attacks had killed at least three and injured thirteen.[72]
  • 23 March 2010: Rebels attacked an Indonesian military convoy, injuring some of the soldiers.[73]
  • May 2010 : The OPM were suspected of killing three workers at a construction site. In retaliation the Indonesian military raided a village leaving at least two dead and a woman raped, while houses in three villages were burned by the military.[74]
  • 17 May 2010: The army attacked a base of OPM killing one suspected militant.[74]
  • 21 May 2010: Militants attacked members of the Indonesian army near Yambi, 75 km from Mulia. No casualties were reported.[74]
  • 15 June 2010: An officer of the Indonesian elite police was shot dead during a patrol, Eight firearms were also stolen by the rebels.[75]
  • July 2010: Twelve houses and two churches were destroyed and a woman was raped during an Indonesian army operation to capture Goliath Tabuni.[76]
  • 23 June 2011: A police officer from Jayapura was shot by alleged members of the Free Papua Movement.[77]
  • 6 July 2011: Three soldiers were shot during a clash with unknown attackers in Kalome village, Tingginambut district.[78]
  • 20 July 2011: An Indonesian soldier was killed in an ambush against a military security squad in Puncak Jaya district in Papua.[78]
  • 31 July 2011: Rebels attacked a car in Papua with guns, axes and knives killing one soldier and three civilians and also wounding seven; OPM denied responsibility.[79][80]
  • 1 August 2011: The National Police said that members of the Free Papua Movement killed four civilians near Tanjakan Gunung Merah, Paniai.[81]
  • 2 August 2011: A soldier guarding a military post in Tingginambut was shot dead. In the town of Mulia two shootings targeted the police and military, injuring one soldier.[82]
  • 3 August 2011: Separatists shot at an army helicopter as it evacuated the body of a soldier they had allegedly killed.[82]
  • 22 October 2011: Al Jazeera published footage of an independence gathering that was attacked by Indonesian security forces. At least five people were killed.[83][84]
  • 2 December 2011: An officer from Jayapura Police office was found dead next to a river after he was allegedly slain by a group wielding arrows and daggers. OPM was blamed.[85]
  • 5 December 2011: Two policemen were killed in Puncak Jaya during an exchange of gunfire with suspected members of the Free Papua Movement.[86]
  • 12 December 2011: Police attacked the headquarters of a local cell of the OPM. The police seized firearms, ammunition, knives, combat gear, documents, and Morning Star flags, and killed 14 militants.[87]
  • In 2012, West Papuan National Committee’s (KNPB) Chairman Mako Tabuni died in hospital after sustaining a shooting injury during an arrest attempt by the Jayapura police department.[88]
  • 22 February 2013: A military helicopter was damaged by ground fire while attempting to remove the bodies of soldiers killed fighting the OPM earlier. At least three members of the crew were injured. Eight Indonesian soldiers were killed in fighting around the same time.[89]
  • 26 December 2013: Australian Gerald Little was sentenced to seven months in prison in Australia for attempting to fight with the OPM. Little was arrested in December 2012 at Brisbane airport by police. Little who had no military training or combat experience travelled to the Ukraine in August 2012 for a five day training course run by a private military contractor the International Law Enforcement Training Agency (ILETA). The Judge described Little as delusional. Little had been in email communication with the OPM.[90][91]
  • 7 April 2014: A border post between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia was damaged and the border crossing temporally closed after a shoot out between the Indonesian Military and “armed civilians”. Papua New Guinea local media reported that OPM fighters may have fired from the New Guinea side of the border and were dressed in blue berets to resemble United Nations personnel. No casualties were reported.[92]
  • 18 September 2014: In a fire fight between Indonesian Security forces and around thirty OPM members at an airfield in the Lanny jaya district, an OPM member was killed and several people wounded. The group of OPM fighters were suspected to be responsible for shooting dead two policemen in July.[93]
  • 13 October 2014: An individual carrying equipment and a large amount of ammunition was apprehended at Sentani airport. The illegal items were found during a routine X-ray after which the suspect attempted escape but was apprehended 200m from the airport. Items seized included 112 5.56-calibre bullets, 20 .56-calibre bullet casings, 13 9-calibre bullets and a single 7.6-calibre cartridge. The police also seized one weapon and a Nokia mobile phone. Earlier, the Papua Police managed to confiscate dozens of home-made weapons and rounds of ammunition during a raid on the OPM’s local headquarters. A policeman involved said; “As many as 20 rounds of Mauser ammunition, five home-made weapons, one motorcycle and striped uniforms were confiscated during the raid,”.[94]
  • 8 December 2014: Four youths were killed and 10 to 21 others were injured during an incident in the Paniai district. Government officials said a few hundred protesters attacked local military and police posts, while rights activists accused the military of shooting at unarmed people after several smaller incidents earlier in the day.[95]
  • 24 March 2015: General Goliath Tabuni and 23 of his followers surrendered to the Indonesian army in Tingginambut, Puncak Jaya.[96]
  • 9 September 2015: Four woodcutters were attacked by armed militants near the border with Papua New Guinea. One of them was killed. Another one was injured while the remaining two were taken hostage and brought to Papua New Guinea. OPM claimed the attack, and stated that they demand prisoner exchange with their two comrades who were arrested. The Indonesian government appealed for help to the Papua New Guinean government. The two hostages was released in 18 September 2015, after the militants were arrested by the Papua New Guinea Defence Force.[97][98][99]
  • 26 January 2016: Ten militants surrendered to the Indonesian Army in Puncak Jaya. They used to be the followers of General Goliath Tabuni, who surrendered in 2015. The government is planning to give them amnesty.[100]
  • May 2016: Mass demonstrations in support of the United Liberation Movement for West Papua and its efforts to join the Melanesian Spearhead Group began in early May and continued throughout the month. Indonesian police responded by arresting thousands of demonstrators.[101]
  • 24 March 2017: 154 guerrilla fighters in Papua province have surrendered to the Indonesian government in a ceremony in Puncak district, the Indonesian army said in a statement.[102]
  • 28 March 2017: A Suspect West Papuan man who was described by authorities as an armed separatist leader, was shot dead by the Indonesian police.[103]
  • 22 October 2017: A National Police Mobile Brigade officer was shot and killed in Mimika near the Freeport Grasberg mine with an TPNPB unit taking responsibility who were being pursued after they shot at Freeport mine vehicles on 24 September.[104][105][106][107] Police suspected that the TPNPB used Steyr assault rifles.[104] On 21 October, the TPNPB had declared an area near the mine as a battlefield including the villages of Banti and Kimbeli.[108]
  • 9 November 2017: The military claimed that migrant workers from Indonesia’s Sulawesi island in Banti and Kimbeli villages were being held hostage by the TPNPB which was disputed by an Indonesian government minister who said they had been “isolated” by the fighting.[106] The TPNPB denied there were non-native hostages.[108][109] The TPNPB earlier stated if the military or police take reprisals against innocent Papuans then reciprocal will be done to immigrants residing in PT Freeport area.[110][107]
  • 15 November 2017: A National Police Mobile Brigade officer was shot and killed in Mimika with an TPNPB unit taking responsibility.[111][105] Two TPNPB were injured in gunfire on 17 November.[105] Freeport temporarily shut the main supply route to its Grasberg mine complex.[109] A civilian employee of a catering service provider within Freeport died in suspicious circumstances whilst travelling to his village.[112]
  • 17 November 2017: Indonesian police and military evacuated more than 340 Sulawesi migrants from the villages of Banti and Kimbeli.[113][114] The police stated there was an exchange of gunfire with the TPNPB.[113] Freeport began evacuating mine workers families from the mining town of Tembagapura.[115] Shots had been fired on a Freeport vehicle and two large mining trucks set on fire.[115]
  • 12-~15 July 2018: A series of gunfights were reported between the wing of the Free West Papua Movement and Indonesian security forces. No casualties were reported. [116][117]
  • 2 December 2018: At least 19 workers constructing a bridge at Trans Papua projects were killed by an armed group linked to the West Papua Liberation Organization.[118] One Indonesian soldier is also killed on a separate incident. [119] This event is also known as Nduga massacre.
  • 28 January 2019: A Kostrad soldier guarding an airport in Nduga was killed and another was injured following a firefight.[120]
  • 7 March 2019: 25 TNI soldiers guarding construction of the Trans-Papua road engaged in a firefight with West Papua National Liberation Army personnel. TNI spokesmen claimed that 3 soldiers were killed while 7 Liberation Army personnel were killed.[121]
  • 2 May 2019: Polish man Jakub Skrzypski sentenced to five years in prison for intent to, and preparation to, commit treason. Skrzypski had meetings with the KNPB, which the prosecution argued was a banned organisation, and replied to a mobile phone text message on sourcing weapons from a KNPB member.[122][123][124] He is the first foreigner to be convicted of treason in Indonesia.[124] Three of the four police charges were dropped during his trial.[122] He denied he committed treason claiming he was a tourist and it was a show trial.[124]
  • 10 July 2019:A human rights group advocating for West Papuans in Indonesia says there were more than 23 extra-judicial killings by the military there last year.[125]
  • 12 August 2019: A undercover National Police Criminal Investigation officer was abducted in Usir in Puncak Jaya Regency and later shot dead that day nearby allegedly by a unit led by Lekagak Telenggen after dialogue with the National Police.[126][127]
  • 16 August 2019: A TNI Toyota Hilux travelling on the Trans-Papua Highway in Jayawijaya Regency was ambushed allegedly by a unit led by Egianus Kogoya injuring two soldiers with one later dying in hospital the following day.[128][129]
  • 19-21 August 2019: 2019 Papua protests: Violent protests in Papua’s large cities with several demonstrations over three days, which numbered from in the hundreds to the thousands, following a racist incident on Saturday 17 August with Papuan students in a dormitory in the Indonesian province of East Java at Surabaya involving the TNI and Police.[130][131][132] 10 government buildings in Manokwari and 15 government buildings in Sorong were destroyed.[133] Indonesia throttled the internet to prevent access to social media in protest areas and from 21 August blocked the internet in Papua.[132][131] The Morning Star flag was flown in several protests along with protesters crying “Free Papua”.[132][134][131] Indonesia sent 1200 Police and 300 TNI reinforcements to Papua.[135]
  • 22 August 2019: Protest in Jakarta where demonstrators flew the banned Morning Star flag in front of the Presidential palace singing songs with lyrics demanding Papuan independence.[132][136][137]
  • 23 August 2019: Indonesian National Police and Municipal Police were involved in a gun fight at Wamena in Jayawijaya Regency allegedly by a unit led by Egianus Kogoya which suffered a fatality with a National Police officer and Municipal Police officer both shot in the leg.[138][139]
  • 30 August 2019: Protesters in the eastern region set buildings on fire in the provincial capital of Jayapura. The police fired tear gas to disperse thousands of demonstrators[140].
  • 24 September 2019: Bodies were found under burned buildings. Indonesian police said the death toll had risen to 26 and that a mob had burned buildings and set fire to vehicles. Police said hundreds of university students were being questioned about a protest in Jayapura in which a soldier and three civilians were killed.[141] Much of the unrest was in the city of Wamena.[142]

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